Innate immune responses are initiated by the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR). PRR include Toll-like receptors (TLR), C-type lectin receptors (CLR), RIG-I-like receptors (RLR) and NOD-like receptors (NLR), intracellular DNA sensors and cytoplasmic RNA helicases. 

Each PRR detects pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) derived from viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi or parasites and activates downstream signaling events leading to specific gene expression programs and the secretion of interferons (IFN), inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and other antimicrobial peptides. 

The InnaSCo members share a list of validated tools:

  • antibodies and qPCR primers for the detection of PRRs (TLR, NLR, RLR,...) and signaling molecules
  • ligands for the stimulations of PRRs (TLR, NLR, RLR,...)
  • siRNA/shRNAs and CRISPR cell lines for the invalidations of PRRs (TLR, NLR, RLR,...) and signaling molecules
  • plasmids for the expression of PRRs (TLR, NLR, RLR,...) and signaling molecules